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The Hulbert Taft, Jr. Library

AP U.S. G&P: Landmark Legislation Research Paper: Secondary Sources: Journal Articles

Scholarly Journal Articles may also be Secondary Sources
  • Scholarly journal articles are written by scholars for scholars and present a new interpretation or thesis based upon a synthesis of primary sources, scholarly journal articles, and other secondary sources. Note: Scientific studies published in academic journals are considered primary source material.

  • Many are also peer-reviewed; in other words, they must be approved by other scholars in the field before publication..

  • Scholarly journal articles generally have a bibliography of materials for further study, including primary sources, journal articles, and books.

  • Look for journal article references in the bibliographies and/or notes in your secondary source books / ebooks and other journal articles. 


Tips for Citing Journal Articles in NoodleTools


Online Journal Databases

Contains Primary Sources means this source contains Primary Sources.
Resource Allows NoodleTools Export means you can export the citation for this source to NoodleTools.

If you have any questions, see
Mr. Padgett, Ms. Taylor, or Mr. Previti
OR email us at
We're here to help!

General Search Tips for Online Databases:


Limit results to Full Text.

  • Make sure that all the results are items you can access by limiting results to Full Text results only. Databases often include a mix of full text items and abstracts/synopses of items. Selecting Full Text helps prevent frustration.

Look for search terms in article titles. 

  • ​Database searches generally default to keyword. Using the drop-down list to the right of the search bar, look for titledocument title, or comparable term such as newspaper Headline.

Use Filters.

  • Look for filters / limiters on your results page, such as Subject and Source types. This will help ensure you get only the results that you want and will make sure you don't have to wade through as many results.

Use AND / OR operators (also known as Boolean operators).

  • Use AND in your search when there are words that all need to be in your search results.
  • Use OR when there are two words that can be used interchangeably, but at least one of them needs to be present in your results.
  • Use NOT when you want to exclude a word from your search.
  • Examples:
    • coronavirus OR COVID-19
    • coronavirus OR COVID-19 AND Spain (Articles about the virus in Spain only.)
    • coronavirus OR COVID-19 NOT United States (Articles about the virus anywhere but the United States.)

Tips for Citing Journal Articles in NoodleTools

PLEASE NOTE: Do not copy and paste complete citations from electronic sources. NoodleTools cannot generate footnotes from copied and pasted citations.


Citations may be directly exported to NoodleTools from the following journal databases

  • Academic OneFile
  • Academic Search Complete

To cite a Journal article, first choose the NoodleTools option that best describes where you found it: 

  • Database = an article found in a Taft Subscription Database such as Academic Search Complete.
    • You can export citations from many of our databases. Look for the Resource Allows NoodleTools Export  next to the database name.
  • If you cannot export the citation, go to NoodleTools, choose Database and then Journal.
    • You must provide the permanent URL for your source. Look for any of the following on the page: permalink, persistent link, stable link, durable link, "Get link", Cite, Citable Link. 
  • Website = a full-text journal article found through a search engine such as Google.
  • Print or In Hand = a print journal found in the library's Reading Room.

Next you will choose what type of source you are citing. In this case, Journal.

A journal article citation has 2 parts:

  • information about the article you used: author, title of article, and page numbers if available.
  • information about the journal as a whole: title of the journal, volume and issue numbers, and date of publication.

If you have any questions about citing journal articles, 

see (or email) Mr. Padgett, Ms. Taylor, or Mr. Previti.