Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Taft School Logo Taft School Wordmark NEWSPAPERS USEFUL LINKS •Taft Google Drive
•RhinoNet (formerly TaftNet)
•Taft Calendar
•Connecticut Libraries
HOW DO I? •Request an Item the Library Doesn't Own
•Print to a Network Printer
•Access Digital Newspapers (NY Times, Wall St. Journal, Waterbury Republican American)
•Access the Papyrus
•Download Audiobooks/eBooks
•Find and Evaluate Websites
•Find Primary Sources
•Use Noodletools

The Hulbert Taft, Jr. Library

Senior Research and Composition: Biographical Research Project: Primary Sources

Primary Source

Primary Sources

Sources created by those who lived it

Any document, image, or artifact created at the time of the topic being researched is a primary source. Examples include: eyewitness accounts, autobiographies and memoirs, diaries, letters, speeches, reports, newspapers, household and day-to-day objects, clothing, works of art, architecture, and photographs.

Please note: primary source documents are a reflection of the time and culture in which they were created and may contain language or images that are considered offensive today.


NoodleTools Tips for Citing Primary Sources

Find Primary Sources in RhinoCat

RhinoCat is the Library's automated catalog of books, ebooks, DVDs, and other library materials. Many books and reference sources, print and electronic, contain primary sources.

To find documents relating to your topic

  • Copy and paste the following exact word string into the basic keyword search box:
    • su,wrdl: sources or su,wrdl: diaries or su,wrdl: personal narratives and kw,wrdl: xxxxx
      • Substitute your topic or topic phrase for xxxxx

To find writings, speeches, and more by an individual relevant to your topic

  • Do an Author search using your person's name to find books, letters, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies written by that person.
  • Do a Keyword search of your person's name to identify writings, interviews, speeches in anthologies and collections.

Additional terms useful for locating primary sources are: correspondence, interviews, speeches, and statistics.

Search Library Catalog

Search Type:

If you have any questions, see
Mr. Padgett, Ms. Taylor, or Mr. Previti
OR email us at
We're here to help!

Historical Newspaper / Periodical Databases

When searching for primary sources in newspaper / periodical databases:
  • Choose Advanced Search if it is not the default search.

  • Always limit your search to the date range relevant to your topic.

  • Search for terms, phrases, etc. that were commonly used at the time in relation to your topic. For example: World War I was known as the "Great War" prior to World War II.

  • Look at other limiters on the advanced search page that might improve your results, such as article, commentary, editorial, essay, feature, front page / cover story, letter to the editor, etc.

Find Primary Sources on the Internet

To find primary source material about your individual on the internet, you can copy and paste the phrase

letters OR diaries OR journals OR interviews OR speeches OR quotes AND "your individual's name"

Think also about primary source types relevant to your individual's area of work / expertise, for example:
  • ...OR lyrics AND Jerry Garcia

  • ...OR statistics AND Michael Jordan

If you are focusing on a particular historical event or time in which your individual was significant, you can do a search like

Documents OR "primary sources" AND Mussolini AND fascism


Google Web Search

NoodleTools Tips for Citing Primary Sources

PLEASE NOTE: Do not copy and paste complete citations from electronic sources. NoodleTools cannot generate footnotes from copied and pasted citations.


For a new citation, click on +New Source.

To cite a Primary Source, first choose the NoodleTools option that best describes where you found it:

  • Database = a document found in a Taft Subscription Database such as The New York Times, 1851-2017.
    • You must provide the permanent URL for your source. Look for any of the following on the page: permalink, persistent link, stable link, durable link, "Get link", or Cite.
  • Website = a document on a website found through a search engine such as Google.
  • Print or In Hand = a document found in a print book. For example: in a reference book or a secondary source/monograph.

Next, determine what kind of primary source you are citing:

  • Look at the list of options in NoodleTools. Is it a newspaper article, a speech, a letter, or another item listed? If so, choose that item type.
  • If you are not sure, you can use "Anthology / Collection" which enables you to cite a source found within another source.